Friday, June 29, 2012

Missouri Drought Info

For those of you who want to keep up with the drought and heat, here are a few resources that I found on

Extension Disaster Education Network
Missouri 48-hour weather forecasts

Missouri State Drought Monitor
(Updated every Thursday at 8:30 a.m. EST),MW

Drought Impact Reporter

National Weather Service
Advanced Hydrologic Precipitation Service

Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin

When Drought Stops Plants Making Protein, Nitrate Poisoning Can Kill Grazing Livestock

Drought-stricken forages that accumulate nitrate can kill grazing livestock, quickly, warns a University of Missouri plant scientist.

“We’re getting reports of cattle dying,” says Rob Kallenbach, MU Extension forage specialist. “As hot weather without rain continues, we expect to hear of more death losses. It happens at the start of every drought.”

Large grasses, such as corn, sorghum and sudangrass hybrids, are most often the cause of problems, Kallenbach said on a statewide teleconference Thursday morning. Many plants, even ryegrass and fescue, can accumulate nitrates when soil moisture becomes short.

Johnsongrass and other common weeds can be deadly also.

Nitrogen is essential for forage and grain-crop production. Nitrates are in the plants all the time, creating normal growth. Nitrogen picked up by plant roots from the soil moves up into the plant. Eventually the plant stores that energy in the seed heads as protein.

Nitrates are converted into amino acids, which are building blocks for plant proteins. Protein is an essential part of animal diets.

Lack of moisture stops the flow of nitrates up the plant and the conversion to protein. The roots continue to bring nitrogen into the plant, where it accumulates first in the stalks. Too much unconverted nitrate can become toxic.

In a drought, producers needing forage turn cows to graze corn, sorghum or other large grasses. Usually the only time a farmer grazes corn would be when it is obvious the plant will not make ears of corn for grain harvest. Grazing is considered when drought stops conversion of nitrate into protein.

That’s when deadly trouble occurs.

Cornstalks and other plants can be given a quick test for nitrates. A few drops of test solution on a split stalk turn deep blue when high levels of nitrate are present.

Most MU Extension county offices have test kits to provide quick nitrate checks. This test gives only rough indications of potential problems. It’s a warning.

A more accurate, quantitative test must be done in a laboratory, but that takes time. The lab test works best on stored forages such as bales, balage or silage.

On the teleconference, a regional specialist asked Kallenbach about corn being chopped and fed to cow herds. That is being done already in dry areas of southern Missouri.

“That works well—if it is done quickly,” Kallenbach said.

The worst thing is to chop a load of cornstalks, then let the forage sit on the feed wagon overnight. In that time, the deadly nitrates convert into even deadlier nitrites.

“If you feed a load of high-nitrite corn to your cattle in the morning, by noon you can be out of the cattle business. The cows put their four feet into the air,” he added.

Nitrites tie up the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood hemoglobin. Without oxygen, the cow suffocates.

At even low levels of nitrate, pregnant cows can lose their calves.

Grazing drought-stressed cornstalks is safer than chopping, if managed right. Cows prefer eating corn leaves first. Usually, leaves have less nitrate content than stalks.

Management-intensive grazing works when a strip of a cornfield is fenced off with an electric wire. When the herd eats all of the leaves, but before they start eating nitrate-rich cornstalks, the cows are moved to a new grazing paddock.

Even after rains come, the water won’t clear up problems overnight. It takes the plant at least five days to convert nitrate to safer levels of amino acids. If there are no ears of corn on the standing stalks, conversion takes longer.

When cattle run out of pasture, farmers turn to alternative forages, Kallenbach said. Slow down and make a quick nitrate test to ensure safety of the herd. It is so long between severe droughts that people forget lessons learned in the last drought.
(by Duane Daily, University of Missouri Cooperative Media Group)

Thursday, June 28, 2012

Raising Pastured Pigs – A Video Series for Beginning Farmers

Kingbird Farm is a diversified organic livestock, storage crop, and herb farm in New York State. Managed by Karma Glos and her husband, the 80 acre farm has about 20 acres of pasture. The couple raises about 300 broilers, 300 laying hens, 50 turkeys, a herd of Scottish Highland cattle producing 5-6 steers per year for freezer beef, 6 horses, and registered Tamworth pigs. Four production videos are available from the Cornell Small Farms Program outlining their farm practices and how they grew their farm to the success it is today.

Kingbird Farm has five to seven sows at a time, and one boar, and each sow farrows twice per year producing about eight piglets in each litter. The sows and boar are kept on pasture, and the sow is brought into the barn to farrow and raise her young to 8 weeks, and then the piglets are marketed for feeder pigs or breeding stock, and the remaining piglets and sow are returned to respective pastures. Glos and her husband finish about 10 to 15 pigs for themselves and their customers – the remaining are marketed.

Glos does ear notch all piglets as required for Registered Tamworth hogs, and the male piglets are castrated.

To learn more about Kingbird Farm and their hog production practices, please view the following videos brought to you by the Cornell Small Farms program. To learn more about the Cornell Small Farms Program, or to view other production videos, please visit their website. To learn more about Karma and Kingbird Farm, check out their website.


Pig Castration:

Ear Notching:

Finishing Pigs on Pasture:

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Designing Irrigation Systems

A college mentor—an engineer by the way—used to always say “two plus two has to equal four”. He and an economics professor would conduct programs together from an engineering and economics perspective. The economist would begin by saying that the engineer carries calculations out to the fourth decimal then adds 10 % for error. Then the engineer would say if you laid all economists end to end the world would be a whole lot better off.

The point is that with an irrigation system, the output will not exceed the input. The input in such a case would be the flow rate or capacity of the pump and/or water supply. Without getting too technical there are other parameters that will interfere with the output as well. Friction loss in the pipe or tubing, elevation differences, equipment efficiencies, pressure losses through sprinklers and/or emitters and evaporation are aspects that interfere with design.

It makes little difference whether it is a 160 acre center pivot or a one acre drip irrigation system. These things have to be accounted for. However, the pump flow rate is probably the starting point. As an example, let’s look at two different scenarios. Here we’ll assume all the pressure losses, sprinkler pressures, elevations, etc. have been accounted for.

First example: One acre of blueberries

Blueberry spacing = 4 feet

Row spacing and length = 12 feet apart & 100 feet long

Water flow rate = 2.3 gpm

Drip emitter spacing and capacity = 2 feet, ½ gallon per hour (gph)

How many rows will the pump flow rate handle?

Again assuming all the pressure losses, etc. has been accounted for;

2.3 gpm x 60 min/hr = 276 emitters

½ gph per emitter

276 emitters x 2 feet (spacing) = 552 feet of row

So if the rows are 100 feet long, that pumping capacity will only water 5 ½ rows or only cover about 15 % of the patch. The one acre patch then would have to be watered in seven zones. To reduce the number of zones, the pump capacity has to be increased. Theoretically, to operate as one zone, pump capacity would have to increase from 2.3 gpm to 16 gpm assuming there are no additional efficiency losses.

Second example: 160 acre center pivot on corn

Water flow rate = 1000 gallons per minute (gpm)

There are 27,154 gallons in one acre-inch (A-In) which is one inch of water covering one acre. So if one inch of water was to be applied to the 160 acres, how long would it take?

160 acres x 27,154 gallons = 72 hours or 3 days

1000 gpm x 60 min/hr

So if the acres are doubled, either the time doubles or the flow rate has to double. If the pump has the capability of increasing the flow rate, pressure losses in the pipe increase. The bottom line is that changing one parameter changes everything else.

Equipment and material suppliers generally have a good handle on irrigation system design. Just remember 2 + 2 has to = 4.
(By Ed Browning, MU Extension Natural Resource Engineering Specialist)

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Tips to Stay Safe in the Heat

With the hot summer weather upon us, heat related issues can sneak up on people who work outdoors, especially farmers who may not have access to shade or air conditioning to cool down.

Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are the three types of heat illnesses that you may be at risk of if you don’t notice the warning signs and symptoms. The first two types, while less serious than heat stroke, are still very dangerous and should be remedied quickly. Heat cramps, the least dangerous type, are painful cramping of muscles that occurs during exercise or work in hot environments. According to the Mayo Clinic website they are more intense and last longer than the average night cramps. Below is a list of remedies:

•Drink fluids including water or sports drinks to rehydrate
•Get to a cool environment
•Stretch and/or massage the area gently

Heat exhaustion is a more serious condition that comes after heat cramping, and is the inability of the body to cool itself down in hot, humid weather. Factors contributing to heat exhaustion include dehydration, alcohol use and wearing too many clothes for the temperature. Symptoms can include profuse sweating, dizziness/fainting, nausea/fatigue and cool, clammy skin. Headaches and a weak pulse can also be symptoms. Heat exhaustion is treated the same as heat cramps, but also remedies include:

•Cool the body by misting with cool water or a shower
•Loosen tight fitting clothing to allow the skin to breathe

If any symptoms of heat cramps or exhaustion persist for more than an hour, get prompt medical attention to avoid a more serious condition such as heat stroke.

If you are working out in the hot sun all day and forget to bring cool, re-hydrating drinks with you, you are at risk of developing a condition called heat stroke. Defined by the Mayo Clinic as a core body temperature of 104 degrees or higher, heat stroke needs immediate attention to avoid serious complications. Other than the high temperature, symptoms include:

•No longer sweating
•Rapid breathing and pulse
•Passing out

While working or exercising outside is a major contributor to heat stroke, genetic factors, medications, age and weight can all play a role in developing the condition. Visit the Mayo Clinic website for a full list of factors.

To prevent heat stroke: avoid sitting in parked cars where the temperature can raise quickly, wear temperature-appropriate clothing, drink plenty of hydrating fluids, avoid working in the hottest part of the day, and know the signs of heat cramping and exhaustion.

If heat stroke is suspected, immediate medical attention is required, so a doctor can reduce the internal body temperature of the afflicted person to avoid any internal damage.

Monday, June 25, 2012

Fly Control for Cattle

Flies rob millions of dollars from cattle producers each summer. Losses are due to reduction in gain on yearling cattle, loss of body condition in cows and bulls and lowered weaning weights in calves. These losses are all due to stress. We have all seen cattle that are bothered by flies. They spend a tremendous amount of energy trying to get relief from the flies. They go to shade in brush or tress, stand in ponds or creeks, swish their tail constantly and flick their ears all in an effort to get rid of the flies. All this effort and time takes cattle away from grazing, ruminating and doing what cattle do to make you money.

Flies spread diseases; the most common in summer is pinkeye. They also feed on blood, which reduces performance. One study determined that yearling cattle with a high infestation of flies had a 12 to 15 percent reduction in gain, which equaled about 30 pounds.

There are two main flies that cause the most problems for area cattle producers. Those two flies are the horn fly and the face fly. Let’s talk about both species.

Face flies are those pesky critters that you see, like their name implies, on the faces of cattle. The flies you see on the cattle are the female face flies. They are the only ones that feed on the secretions around the eyes, nose and mouth of cattle. They are non-biting flies but they suck up the secretions to get the protein contained in the secretions. The male face flies spend their time resting on brush, trees and other vegetation waiting on mates. The males feed on plant nectar and manure.

The female face fly lays her eggs in fresh cow manure. They do not lay eggs in manure piles around barns or in feedlots. When the face fly eggs hatch, the maggots feed on the manure and then move to the soil to pupate. The flies then emerge about a week later. The time it takes to get from the egg to an adult is two to three weeks. Face flies are most active during the summer and early fall. When the weather starts to change in the fall, the flies look for shelter in some building to hibernate.

It has been proven that a population of over 12 flies per animal will decrease grazing by about an hour per day. This of course will result in a loss of productivity. When populations are over 20 flies per animal, it is considered a heavy population. Heavy face fly populations will cause cattle to seek relief and reduce grazing time and performance substantially. It is recommended that face flies should be controlled when there are five to ten flies per animal.

If you had to pick a bad guy of the fly family, it would be the Horn Fly. Horn flies are those flies that you see in clusters on the backs of cattle, usually around the top of the shoulders. These flies may move to the sides or underneath the belly of the cattle if disturbed or when the weather gets really hot.

Horn flies have a piercing mouthpart and feed on the blood of cattle. They eat about 20 to 40 meals per day. Just think about how much these flies are bothering your cattle. I can’t stand to get even one mosquito bite. Think about having 100 of these horns flies, biting you 40 times each day to feed on your blood. Believe me you wouldn’t be interested in eating; you would be trying to find a way to get them off of you. That is exactly what the cattle do. High infestations of these flies can really rob you of gain and performance because the cattle spend their entire day trying to get relief from the constant biting.

Horn flies spend their life on cattle. The females leave only to lay their eggs in fresh manure that is less than two minutes old. They can lay up to 500 eggs on the grass underneath the manure. In a few hours the eggs hatch and the maggots feed for a couple of weeks before pupating. The life cycle from egg to adult is about three weeks. When the adults hatch, they immediately try to find cattle and the biting and feeding begins.

Horn flies die off with the first frost. They over-winter in the pupal stage and hatch again in the late spring when the weather warms up.

In order to determine if you have a high enough population to justify a treatment program, count the number of horn flies on the heads, backs and shoulders of 15 head of cattle. Take the average number and if you have 100 flies per animal you have reached a treatment threshold.

The economic threshold, where the flies are causing you economic losses, is 200 flies per animal. As mentioned earlier in this newsletter, high populations of especially horn flies can really reduce cattle gain, performance, milk production and weaning weights.

Cattle producers have a number of treatment options that they can choose from to control face and horn flies. To control horn flies the options include:

1. Back rubbers that have an insecticide diluted with some type of oil.

2. Dust bags—are good as long as the cattle will use them. It may have to be placed next to a water source or mineral feeder to force the cattle to walk under/through it.

3. Feed additives in mineral mixes. These pass through in the manure and disrupt the normal pupation process thereby controlling the flies. Each animal needs to consume the recommended dosage for effective control.

4. Insecticide ear tags – most effective if applied when the flies start to become a problem. If applied too early in the season the tag may have already lost some of its effectiveness when the fly season hits.
5. Pour-ons and insecticide boluses are also a choice.

6. Walk through fly traps placed in gates where cattle must walk through them regularly, are a control measure that works without the use of insecticides.

7. High-pressure insecticide sprays that are applied to treat the entire herd while held in a corral are another choice that is highly effective.

Face flies are a little harder to control than horn flies because they don’t spend all of their time on the cattle. Control options include: Insecticide ear tags. Dust bags. Walk through fly traps.

It has been proven that Horn and Face flies can cause economic losses if populations exceed threshold levels. With a 15 percent reduction in gain and performance on cattle when fly numbers are high, it makes sense to address the problem.
(by By Dona Geode, University of Missouri Extension Livestock Specialist)

Friday, June 22, 2012

Study Shows There's Money in Small Acreage Vegetable Production

(Even though this study is in Texas, it still offers good ideas for small and beginning farmers in Missouri.)

Video of Dr. Luis Ribera on economics of growing organic vegetables on small-acreage plots.

Growing organic vegetables on small plots of land in South Texas can be profitable, according to a feasibility study recently concluded at the Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Weslaco.
A recent study shows growing
organic vegetables on small-acreage
plots in South Texas can be profitable.
(AgriLife Communications photo
by Rod Santa Ana
Until now, there had been no studies on the economic feasibility of small-scale production, according to Dr. Luis Ribera, a Texas AgriLife Extension Service agricultural economist who helped conduct the study.

“We’ve always had all kinds of data on large-scale, commercial production of crops here, but until now we just didn’t have any numbers to offer people wanting to know how much money they could make on a 1- or 2-acre plot,” Ribera said.

Ribera said the interest in growing organic vegetables on small plots here has grown in recent years.

“What we found, bottom line, is that organic vegetable production on a small plot of land can be profitable,” he said. “It’s a lot of work, but one family can earn a $45,000 annual salary on a 3-acre plot.”

To come up with those numbers, Ribera and his colleagues put together a panel of three local producers with experience in small acreage vegetable production, he said. They then created a representative or model 3-acre organic vegetable farm.

“We based the study on a 3-acre plot producing a wide variety of organic vegetables and selling them to three different outlets: a farmers market, local restaurants and a
CSA, or community supported agriculture program,” he said.

The community supported agriculture program in the study has 100 customers who each pay a fee for the supply of farm-fresh produce throughout the growing season, from late November through early June, Ribera said.

“There’s obviously a lot of work involved in preparing the land, planting, growing the crop and harvesting in such a way that produce is available throughout those six to seven months,” he said.

What the study found was that such an operation can take in gross returns of $60,000 to $65,000, Ribera said. Expenses, which include everything from labor, seed and water to delivery bags, electricity and fuel, total about one-third, or $20,000.

“That leaves a net cash return of $40,000 to $45,000,” he said. “So, obviously, it is feasible to create a profitable business on a relatively small parcel of land, provided the customers, especially the CSA, are there. But it is a lot of work and a lot of planning, based on what our three producers told us.”

The work involved growing 30 to 50 different vegetable crops that were partially harvested and replanted every two weeks to keep up with demand.

“Throughout the project we worked with small-acreage producers in workshops on production, food safety, government funding, business planning and marketing,” Ribera said.

The work can be tedious, “but if you enjoy growing vegetables and talking with customers, you can make a living out of it,” he said.

“It’s not like planting 50 acres of onions, growing them, then harvesting for sale to one buyer,” Ribera said. “It is very hard work and detail intensive, but based on the input of our three growers in the study, it can be done. Growing organic vegetables on small plots of land in the Lower Rio Grande Valley can be profitable. And now we have the numbers to prove it.”

The feasibility study was done with a grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.  A publication of the study, “Economic feasibility of a small acreage organic vegetable farm in South Texas,” can be found online.

Thursday, June 21, 2012

Edible Flowers to Enhance Salad Mixes for Market

I like chive flowers in my salad (debi)
Value-added products, like mesclun mixed with calendula flowers, can generate excitement in the consumer and added income for the grower. Since many people are unfamiliar with using edible flowers, it is always a good idea to provide free samples and recipes. Remind your customers that edible flowers mixed in summer salads create unique colors and tastes. Often, customers will use these flowers for special events—placing crystallized violets on wedding cakes, for example. It is up to the grower to remind consumers of these special uses. As for pricing, the grower must decide what the market will bear.

Edible flowers can be used as a diversification strategy. Edibles are usually grown in conjunction with cut flowers, herbs, and specialty lettuces, in order to complement them and create opportunities for value-added products.

There are perhaps 100 types of common garden flowers that are both edible and palatable. Many seed catalogs offer edible flower selections, complete with descriptions and recipes. Some of the more popular edible flowers include:

• Bachelor button        • Bee balm  
I like making hibiscus tea
with the dried petals.  (debi)
• Borage                     • Calendula
• Chamomile               • Chive flowers
• Dandelion                 • Daylily
• Dianthus                   • Hibiscus
• Hollyhock                 • Impatiens
• Lilac                         • Marigold
• Mint                         • Nasturtium
• Pansy                       • Roses
• Sage                         • Squash blossom
• Violet

Flowers are rich in nectar and pollen, and some are high in vitamins and minerals. For instance, roses—especially rose hips—are very high in vitamin C, marigolds and nasturtiums contain vitamin C, and dandelion blossoms contain vitamins A and C. Flowers are also nearly calorie-free.
For more information, see the ATTRA publication Edible FlowersThis publication discusses some of the basic production and marketing concerns for edible flowers and offers some cautions on non-edible or toxic flowers.

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

'Farm Finance' Webinar Now Online

Beginning farmers and anyone else considering farming have a new tool for one of agriculture's most daunting tasks--crunching the numbers.

The National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT), with funding from the USDA Risk Management Agency (RMA), has just posted a new webinar that can smooth the road for anyone who is beginning a journey in agriculture and wants to get comfortable with handling finances. The webinar, "Farm Finances: Organizing and Understanding Your Numbers," is available now online.

As with any small business, starting a farm requires basic accounting and business-management skills. This webinar helps beginning farmers become familiar with necessary basic accounting techniques and gives them tips on organizing and understanding their numbers.

"With a few easy steps and forms, farmers can develop good record-keeping and accounting habits from the outset," said Hannah Lewis, one of the featured NCAT ag experts in the webinar.  The topics in the webinar provide a solid overview. They include:
•Clarifying your goals and attaining them.
•Determining which resources are necessary for farming. Do you have them?
•Organizing your data.
•What can your numbers teach you?

Hannah Lewis has worked in sustainable agriculture and food systems for more than 15 years as a farm worker, retail produce manager, advocate, researcher, and educator. She currently serves as Midwest director and local-food system specialist at NCAT, and she works on projects related to farm-to-school initiatives, beginning farmers, and business planning. She has a Master of Science degree in agriculture and sociology from Iowa State University and serves on the board of the Women, Food, and Agriculture Network.

Tammy Hinman has worked in the sustainable-agriculture field for more than 20 years as a farmer, with Cooperative Extension Service, and for various nonprofit organizations. She is currently a horticulture specialist with NCAT and works on project related to beginning farmers, business planning, farmers markets, and market gardening. She also runs a small diversified vegetable and flower farm in Bozeman, Montana. She has a Bachelor's degree in horticulture from Colorado State University and a Master of Arts degree in food system studies from Antioch University. 

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

2012 Ag Census

Are you registered for the 2012 Ag Census?

Make sure your voice is heard! July 1st is the sign-up deadline for farms to voluntarily register. This is very important to get farms included that were not the 2007 survey.

Are you a beginning farmer who is not sure if they are registered to be included in the 2012 Agriculture Census? Make sure your voice is heard this year!

Go to and click on the "Make your voice heard. Sign up" green box.  A farm is defined as any place that produced and sold, or normally would have sold, $1,000 or more of agricultural products during the Census year.

Why is signing up for the Ag Census so important?  The Ag Census gives the numbers behind the agriculture in our state.  The numbers assist extension ( an other ag agencies) in applying for grants or other types of funding for the different areas of agriculture.  The greater the number, the more funding there is available for certain areas of agriculture.  For example, why is there a cost share of about $700 that farmers can apply for when filling out the application to become certified organic?  The Ag Census numbers showed the dramatic percentage increase of organic farms from one census survey to the next.  Why are their grants for extension to assist beginning farmers?  Because the Ag Census numbers showed the increase in farmers who had 9 years or less experience farming.

Please make sure your farm is included in the 2012 Ag Census! You are a valuable member of the agricultural community - make sure you are included this year.

Monday, June 18, 2012

Protect Against Sunscald on Fruit

Sunscald on raspberries
One of the many frustrating things about producing fruit or vegetables is having perfect growth and the harvest which then can be a loss in sales. Sunscald is such a disorder.

Sunscald occurs on the south side of the plant and on one side of the produce. It affects many fruits and vegetables including apples, cucumbers, grapes, pepper, raspberry, squash, tomato and watermelon. In each case the symptoms are a bit different and create varied overall results on the harvest.

Tree fruit will show brown or gold skin that usually has a corky area below. The fruit is still edible and pathogens usually don’t attack. On vegetables and most small fruit, the area becomes bleached or tan and is often sunken into the vegetable. The area becomes susceptible to pathogens and will quickly rot and decompose. Raspberries are an exception as each individual drupelet becomes white and hard.

Exposure to sun and especially to long intervals of heat has the greatest affect on tissue. When the temperatures remain above 85° for as little as three days, the plant canopy is weak and there is a lack of cloud cover, sunscald may be an issue. Temperature is a force that cannot be changed but the amount of shade on the produce can.

A healthy plant that has a mass of leaf cover has fewer issues associated with sunscald damage. Good nutrient management and ample water supply as the plant develops will create a good canopy that can protect developing fruit and vegetables. If that leaf cover is not present then shade cloth is a possible solution to combat sunscald.
(by Sarah Denkler, MU Extension Southeast Regional Horticulture Specialist)

Friday, June 15, 2012

Nutrition Labeling of Meat Is Here: Are You Folloiwng the Rules?

Our colleague Dr. Carol Lorenzen, MU Meat Scientist, passed this information along to us over at the Beginning Farmer Project.  It's important to know and read so that you can be sure your following the rules when selling meat this summer. And the best part -- Dr. Lorenzen provides all the information you need below!

As most of you know nutritional labeling came your way on March 1, 2012.  The final rule requires nutritional labeling on single ingredient major meat and poultry cuts and ground meat and poultry with or without seasoning.  The nutritional information can be provided at the point of purchase or the product label.  Downloadable charts for point of purchase posting are available at for major meat and poultry cuts but this does not include ground products. (See picture of the printable poster above.)  

These materials also specify the major cuts for each category which means if the cut isn’t listed, you don’t have to worry about the nutritional information.  The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference also located on that page can be used to generate nutritional labeling for ground meat and poultry products which can then be posted at the point of purchase.   There are some exceptions to the final rule that you need to be aware of.  You don’t need to provide nutritional labeling for products that are intended for further processing, products that are custom slaughtered, products intended for export, and products either not for sale or packaged in less than ½ ounce packages provided there are no nutritional claims.  There is also one important exemption for chopped or ground meat and poultry products and that is the small business exemption.  The small business exemption applies to any company with less than 500 employees.  That means that most of you will only have to comply with nutritional labeling for major cuts.